Qu'est-ce que l'aspiration aiguë du contenu oropharyngé ou gastrique ?


**Question: What⁢ is‌ the Acute Aspiration of Oropharyngeal or Gastric Contents?**



**Answer:**



**Acute Aspiration⁤ of Oropharyngeal or Gastric Contents**



**Definition:**



Acute aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents ‌refers to⁤ the ⁤sudden entry of these substances into the lower respiratory tract, causing⁣ potential airway obstruction,⁤ chemical irritation, and infection. Oropharyngeal ⁣contents include ‍saliva,⁣ secretions, and any ingested food or liquids, while gastric contents include the acidic and enzymatic contents of the stomach.



**Causes:**



* Vomiting

* Regurgitation

* Altered mental status (e.g., intoxication, seizures)

* Trauma to the head⁣ or neck

* Endotracheal intubation

* Obstructive ⁣sleep apnea

* Gastroesophageal reflux disease



**Risk Factors:**



* Impaired airway reflexes

* Reduced gag reflex

* Dental disease

* Esophageal disorders

* Supine positioning



**Symptoms:**



* **Respiratory:** Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, cyanosis

* **Gastrointestinal:** Vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain

* **Other:** Fever, chills, tachycardia, lethargy



**Complications:**



Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric contents can lead to:



* **Aspiration Pneumonia:** Infection in the‌ lungs due to aspiration of bacteria from the oropharynx or stomach.

* **Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS):** Life-threatening condition characterized by severe inflammation ⁤and fluid accumulation in ​the lungs.

* **Hypoxemic Respiratory⁤ Failure:** Failure of the lungs to provide adequate oxygen to the body.

* **Choking:** ⁤Airway obstruction ⁢due to aspiration of large particles.

* **Chemical Pneumonitis:** Lung inflammation caused by the acidic contents of gastric aspirate.



**Diagnosis:**



* ⁢Medical history⁣ and physical examination

* Chest​ X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan

* Bronchoscopy

* Gastric aspirate culture



**Treatment:**



* **Immediate stabilization:** Airway management, oxygen therapy, and intubation if necessary

* **Antibiotic therapy:** To prevent or treat bacterial pneumonia

* **Bronchodilators:** To improve ⁣airflow

* **Mucolytics:** To thin secretions

* **Gastric decompression:** To prevent aspiration‌ during recovery

* **Early mobilization:** To improve airway clearance



**Prevention:**



* Maintain airway patency

* Elevate the head of bed (Fowler’s position)

* Avoid feeding patients during acute illness

* Consider‌ nasogastric intubation for patients⁣ at high risk



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* ⁢Pneumonia

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