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Vaccines are given at different times in a person’s life. Those that are administered to infants and children are called paediatric vaccines.
Vaccination is an integral part of immunization, a process where the body is made to become resistant to a variety of disease-causing agents such as bacteria and viruses.
According to UNICEF, immunization has led to the almost complete disappearance of polio and the eradication of smallpox virus. Although measles is still very much around, the process has brought down the fatality rate among children by as much as 71% globally. In another statistic report, vaccination has helped save the lives of more than 2 million children. It has also significantly reduced the number of cases diphtheria, mumps, rubella, pertussis, and tetanus between 98% and 100% in the United States.
اللقاحات are available in different forms. They can be inactivated, live, DNA, conjugate, toxoid, recombitant, and subunit. One of the most common types is inactivated vaccine, which means the virus or bacterium has already been killed before it is injected into the body. This is in contrast with live where a live but a very weak virus or bacterium is being used.
In some cases, specialists make use of a part of the virus or bacterium to make a subunit vaccine as well as a toxoid (if the threat is the toxin secreted by the microbes) and conjugate (which removes the protective covering of the microbes that help them mask themselves against the immune system). DNA and recombinant vaccines, meanwhile, are currently in the experimental phase.
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Paediatric vaccines are given to children from 0 to 6 years old. Children who have not received any vaccination ever should obtain the needed immunization as soon as possible.
Some vaccines are given only once, though most have to be repeated at certain times. They may also be given in separate doses that are spaced few weeks or months apart. This is to ensure long-lasting protection against the pathogen.
Vaccines do not guarantee a hundred percent immunity. For instance, a child who has received a yearly or updated influenza vaccine can still develop the disease. The vaccine simply increases the body’s resistance against threats. This way, medications and other interventions necessary to eliminate the threat can be rendered more effective.
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Based on the coverage schedule provided by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), newborns must receive hepatitis B vaccine. Ideally, this should be administered between one and two months and again, between six and eighteen months.
Rubella vaccine and the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are injected during the second, fourth, and six months. The latter is administered again once the child has reached 15 to 18 months, then between four and six years old.
Meanwhile, the vaccine against Haemophilus influenza type B is given four times during the child’s life: 2 months, four months, six months, and between 12 and 15 months. The pneumococcal vaccine, which is conjugated, follows the same schedule as the influenza type B vaccine.
For the polio vaccine, it should be given during the baby’s second, fourth, and six months, as well as between 12 and 15 months. The last paediatric vaccine for polio is given when the child is between four and six years old.
The hepatitis A vaccine is provided between the child’s first year and 23 months. After six to 18 months, the hepatitis A vaccine will be administered again. Varicella vaccine is given during 12 to 15 months, as well as between 4 to 6 years.
The vaccine against influenza is administered yearly. Vaccination will be in two doses, which will be around a month apart.
Vaccination is a community effort. The main responsibilities lie on both the parents and paediatricians. By the time the baby is born and during his or her vaccination, the parent is provided with a book that is used to keep track of the schedule. Parents can bring their kids to local health centers or to their doctors’ clinics.
Meanwhile, many schools are currently requiring or encouraging their students to have a complete or updated vaccination before attending classes.
المخاطر والمضاعفات المحتملة
Most of the side effects of paediatric vaccination are mild. These include a low-grade fever and redness or soreness at the injected site. The حمة may happen as the body’s immunity produces the necessary antibodies against the microbe. Some people, nevertheless, exhibit more adverse reactions such as severe allergic reactions. There have been reported cases of neurological side effects. These cases, however, are extremely rare.
One of the biggest debates surrounding vaccination on children is its relationship with autism. At least 1 in every 68 kids in the United States is diagnosed with توحد spectrum disorder, a type of mental disorder characterized by the person’s inability to communicate and build relationships with others.
Some of the common signs and symptoms of the disorder include unresponsiveness to loud sounds, inability to make eye contact, tendency to lash out or throw tantrums, difficulty in showing affection, and inability to learn new words or actions unlike other children their age.
A number of experts suggest that there’s evidence suggesting a link between autism and vaccine, especially since the first symptoms appear at 2 months old, a time when most of the essential paediatric vaccines are first administered. They also consider the direct proportional increase of both the administered vaccines and the diagnosed autism cases.
On the other hand, those who champion vaccines cite that there’s no clear or solid evidence on their effect on autism. If there are studies, the analyses are often limited to be fully accepted by the scientific community. Further, others believe that the benefits still far outweigh the possible risks and complications of vaccination.
ما هي لقاحات الأطفال: نظرة عامة ، الفوائد ، والنتائج المتوقعة
Meta Title: A Comprehensive Guide to Paediatric Vaccines: Overview and Benefits
Meta Description: Learn about the importance of paediatric vaccines, their benefits, and what to expect from them. Discover how vaccines protect children from harmful diseases and provide long-term health benefits. Find valuable information on the different types of paediatric vaccines available and their expected results.
In today’s world, paediatric vaccines play a crucial role in protecting children from various diseases. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the immune system and produce a specific response against harmful pathogens. By introducing a weakened or killed form of the pathogen into the body, vaccines help the immune system recognize and fight the infection more efficiently. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the advantages of paediatric vaccines, the expected results, and why they are essential for your child’s health.
Benefits of Paediatric Vaccines:
1. Disease Prevention: Paediatric vaccines are engineered to prevent children from contracting serious diseases. Vaccines are responsible for the eradication or near-elimination of many deadly diseases such as polio, measles, and rubella. By immunizing your child against these illnesses, you are ensuring their protection and reducing the risk of outbreaks within communities.
2. Herd Immunity: Paediatric vaccines not only protect the individual receiving the vaccine but also contribute to the concept of herd immunity. This occurs when a significant portion of a population is immunized, making it difficult for the disease to spread. Herd immunity is especially crucial for those with weakened immune systems or those who cannot receive the vaccine due to medical reasons, providing indirect protection to vulnerable individuals.
3. Lifelong Health Benefits: Vaccines not only prevent diseases during childhood but also provide long-term health benefits. For instance, the hepatitis B vaccine can prevent chronic hepatitis B infection and its associated complications, such as liver cancer. Similarly, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can protect against cervical cancer in females and other HPV-related cancers. Vaccines contribute to a healthier future for your child by reducing the risk of potentially severe illnesses later in life.
4. Cost-Effective: Vaccines are deemed a cost-effective healthcare measure. The expenses associated with treating vaccine-preventable diseases, including doctor’s visits, hospitalizations, and long-term medical care, are significantly higher than the cost of vaccines themselves. By investing in paediatric vaccines, you are not only safeguarding your child’s health but also minimizing the financial burden associated with preventable diseases.
Types of Paediatric Vaccines:
1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain a weakened form of the virus or bacteria. Examples include the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), and rotavirus vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines often provide long-lasting immunity with a single dose, but they may be contraindicated for children with weakened immune systems.
2. Inactivated Vaccines: Inactivated vaccines are made from either killed bacteria or viruses. They cannot cause the disease they protect against. Examples include the polio, hepatitis A, and pertussis (whooping cough) vaccines. Inactivated vaccines may require multiple doses to achieve immunity, but they are suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems.
3. Subunit, Recombinant, Polysaccharide, and Conjugate Vaccines: These vaccines contain specific parts of the pathogen, such as proteins or sugars, to stimulate an immune response. Examples include the tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (DTaP), hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. These vaccines are generally safe and effective with minimal side effects.
4. DNA and mRNA Vaccines: The recent breakthrough in vaccine technology, DNA, and mRNA vaccines, have gained significant attention. They teach the immune system to recognize and fight the virus by using genetic material from the pathogen. These vaccines, such as the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, offer high efficacy and have been proven to be safe for children.
Expected Results of Paediatric Vaccines:
1. Immune Response: Paediatric vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response, which includes the creation of antibodies that recognize and neutralize the specific pathogen. This immune response helps protect the child from future infections with the same pathogen.
2. Protection from Diseases: Vaccines have been proven to be highly effective in preventing the targeted diseases in the majority of vaccinated individuals. While no vaccine is 100% guaranteed to work in every person, they significantly reduce the risk of severe illness, hospitalization, and death.
3. Decreased Disease Transmission: Vaccinated individuals are less likely to transmit diseases to others, contributing to the overall reduction in disease transmission within communities. This effect is crucial, as it helps protect vulnerable populations, including infants, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems.
4. Long-lasting Immunity: Many paediatric vaccines provide long-term protection against specific diseases. However, the duration of immunity may vary depending on the vaccine and the individual’s immune response. Some vaccines, such as the tetanus and diphtheria vaccines, may require booster doses to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.
5. Side Effects: Paediatric vaccines, like any medical intervention, may have side effects. Common side effects include mild fever, soreness at the injection site, or temporary discomfort. Serious side effects are extremely rare. It is important to consult with your healthcare provider to understand the potential risks and benefits associated with each vaccine.
Paediatric vaccines are invaluable tools for protecting children from various diseases and providing long-term health benefits. By understanding the benefits of vaccination, the different vaccine types available, and the expected results, you can make informed decisions about your child’s immunization schedule. Remember to consult with your healthcare provider for personalized guidance and to ensure your child receives appropriate vaccinations according to their age and health status. Stay informed, keep your child protected, and contribute to a healthier future for all.