What is Radiopharmaceutical Therapy?
Radiopharmaceutical therapy (or nuclear medicine therapy) is a relatively new medical treatment that uses radiopharmaceutical drugs (radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides) to diagnose or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. This therapy involves the administration of very small amounts of radioactive substances, which are referred to as “radiopharmaceuticals.” These substances are used to provide information about medical conditions that cannot be obtained by other imaging tests. The radiopharmaceuticals travel to specific organs or tissues in the body and emit radiation, which can be detected by a special camera or other device.
The administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (IV infusion), interstitial radioactive colloid (IRC) administration, and intra-articular administration are the three primary methods used to deliver radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes. Each method has its own unique advantages and disadvantages and is used to treat different diseases depending on the patient’s particular condition.
Interstitial Radioactive Colloid Administration
Interstitial radioactive colloid (IRC) administration is a medical technique used to deliver radiopharmaceuticals directly to malignant tumors. The therapy involves selectively administering a radiopharmaceutical solution directly into a tumor or to a site near the tumor using a needle, catheter, or syringe. After the radiopharmaceutical solution is delivered, the radiation is released directly into the tumor to cause cytotoxic effects. This method is most often used to treat brain tumors, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer.
Benefits of IRC Administration
IRC administration is an effective treatment for many types of cancer and offers several key benefits. The therapy is minimally invasive and allows for precise delivery of radiation to targeted tissues, which helps minimize damage to healthy tissues. Since the radiation is delivered directly to the tumor, the patient is less likely to experience systemic side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or hair loss. Additionally, IRC administration is less costly than some other treatments and can be used in conjunction with other therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
The expected results of IRC administration vary depending on the specific type of tumor being treated and the particular radiopharmaceuticals being used. In general, the goals of IRC administration are to reduce tumor size, improve the quality of life of the patient, and extend the patient’s life. Some patients may experience a complete remission of their tumor, while others may experience a partial or temporary relief of their tumor.
Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody by Intravenous Infusion
Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy (RMAT) is a type of radiopharmaceutical therapy used to treat certain types of cancer. This therapy involves the administration of a monoclonal antibody that has been labeled with a radioactive isotope, such as iodine-131 or yttrium-90. The monoclonal antibody binds to tumor cells and delivers the radiation directly to the tumor. This location-specific delivery of radiation helps to reduce the risk of damage to healthy tissues.
Benefits of RMAT
RMAT has many advantages over other forms of radiopharmaceutical therapy. The therapy is highly targeted, which helps to reduce the risk of damage to healthy tissues. Additionally, it is less invasive than some other treatments and can be used to treat accessible tumors in the liver, lungs, and lymph nodes. Compared to other radiopharmaceutical therapies, RMAT is relatively fast and can be administered in a single session.
The expected results of RMAT vary depending on the particular tumor being treated. In general, the goals of RMAT are to reduce tumor size, improve the quality of life of the patient, and extend the patient’s life. RMAT can also be used to reduce the symptoms of some cancers, such as pain and inflammation.
Intra-articular administration is a form of radiopharmaceutical therapy that involves the direct infusion of small doses of radiopharmaceuticals into the joint capsule. This therapy is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, and tendonitis. The radiopharmaceuticals are absorbed by the tissues in the joint capsule and reduce inflammation, providing relief from pain and other symptoms.
Benefits of Intra-Articular Administration
Intra-articular administration has several advantages over other forms of radiopharmaceutical therapy. The therapy is minimally invasive, allowing for targeted delivery of radiation to the joint capsule. This helps to reduce the risk of damage to healthy tissues and organs. Additionally, this therapy is relatively fast and can be completed in a single session.
The expected results of intra-articular administration vary depending on the specific condition being treated. In general, the goals of intra-articular administration are to reduce inflammation, improve the patient’s range of motion, reduce joint pain, and improve overall quality of life. The effects of this therapy can be relatively short-lived, so it may need to be repeated several times a year.
Radiopharmaceutical therapy is a relatively new treatment technique that uses radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. The three primary methods used to deliver radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes are interstitial radioactive colloid (IRC) administration, radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by intravenous infusion, and intra-articular administration. Each method has its own unique advantages and disadvantages and is used to treat different diseases.
IRC administration is an effective treatment for many types of cancer and offers several key benefits. The expected results of IRC administration vary depending on the specific type of tumor being treated and the particular radiopharmaceuticals being used. RMAT is a type of radiopharmaceutical therapy used to treat certain types of cancer. RMAT has many advantages over other forms of radiopharmaceutical therapy, and the expected results vary depending on the particular tumor being treated. Lastly, intra-articular administration is a form of radiopharmaceutical therapy that involves the direct infusion of small doses of radiopharmaceuticals into the joint capsule. This therapy is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, and tendonitis. The expected results of intra-articular administration vary depending on the specific condition being treated.
التعريف والنظرة العامة
Radiopharmaceutical therapy is a nuclear medicine procedure used to diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. It works by administering radioactive compounds to a patient. The patient is then monitored using different imaging scans.
Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs that are composed of a radioisotope bonded to an organic molecule. The molecule delivers the radioisotope material directly to specific organs, tissues, and cells being targeted by the treatment. Since the radioisotope can be chosen based on its properties, the treatment can be very effective and efficient.
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Radiopharmaceutical therapy is beneficial for patients suffering from a wide range of medical conditions, including:
- Cancer (primary and metastatic)
- Bone cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Cancer of the lymph nodes
- Brain tumour
- Ovarian cancer
- Parathyroid cancer
- Polycythemia vera (a blood disease)
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
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It can also be used to diagnose various medical problems, such as:
- Abscess and infection
- Biliary tract blockage
- Diseases of the blood vessels
- Diseases of the bone marrow
- Colorectal disease
- Iron absorption disorders
- Heart diseases
- Intact heart muscle damage
- Kidney diseases
- Lung diseases
- Liver diseases
- Pernicious فقر دم
- Red blood cell diseases
- Spleen diseases
- Salivary gland diseases
- Stomach problems
- Blockage of the tear ducts
- Urinary bladder disorders
In summary, radiopharmaceutical drugs offer the following benefits:
- Diagnose an existing disease or medical problem
- Treat the disease or medical condition
- Relieve symptoms, such as pain
- Reduce the risk of cancer-related death by up to 30 percent
- Improve patients’ quality of life
- Help prevent the potential complications of disease
Radiopharmaceutical drugs, specifically radioactive iodine or radioiodine, are especially effective in treating thyroid cancers. This is because the thyroid absorbs almost all iodine content in the blood. Thus, the radioactive iodine can be used to target treatment directly to the cancerous cells in the thyroid gland. This way, unwanted effects on other parts of the body can be avoided or minimised.
Another type of radiopharmaceutical, Phosphorus 32 or P-32, is also highly effective in killing cystic brain tumours without harming the healthy parts of the brain.
For metastatic cancers, radiopharmaceutical therapy is deemed more effective than the conventional radiotherapy technique, which delivers radiation from the outside. However, this conventional method, which is called external beam radiation, can be used alongside radiopharmaceutical therapy especially for patients suffering from severe disease and painful cancers.
One specific type of drug, Radium 223, has been proven effective in shrinking metastatic bone tumours in late-stage cancer patients.
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Radiopharmaceutical therapy is often used as an adjunct treatment after a patient undergoes surgery. For example, cancer patients first have to undergo surgery to get rid of the tumour. After this, radiopharmaceutical therapy may be performed to destroy the cancer cells that get left behind.
Radiopharmaceuticals can be administered in many ways, including:
- Interstitial radioactive colloid administration – This technique works by placing the radiopharmaceutical drug in a body cavity.
- Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody by intravenous infusion – This technique delivers radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies into the patient’s veins through an IV tube. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies are man-made versions of the proteins produced by the immune system. These proteins offer especially targeted treatment because they can attack only a specific type of molecular structure. Thus, they can target only the cancer cells in a specific, direct manner.
- Intra-articular administration – This technique administers the radiopharmaceutical drug through an artery.
Once the radiopharmaceutical drug is administered, it is designed to travel directly to the part of the body that is being treated. The drugs are designed to build up there. Once they reach the target area, they give off radiation. The radiation is powerful enough to destroy cancer cells. This then effectively treats the disease.
The drug can be administered several times over an extended period. The specific treatment plan appropriate for each patient is determined by the doctor depending on the patient’s condition.
المخاطر والمضاعفات المحتملة
While offering a more advanced, targeted treatment for several diseases, radiopharmaceuticals do come with some risks.
For one, it is normal for patients to experience heightened symptoms during the first couple of days following radiopharmaceutical treatment. The symptoms, however, will begin to subside and go away after a few days.
Additionally, radiopharmaceutical therapy can increase a patient’s risk of infection. This is because the drugs tend to lower white blood cell counts in some patient.
Also, radiopharmaceutical therapy can lower platelet counts. This means that patients also face a heightened risk of bleeding and bruising.
Due to these risks and potential complications, radiopharmaceutical therapy is commonly used only for patients who do not respond to other treatments. It is also used as an adjunct treatment for those who are undergoing other treatment methods, such as surgery.
Some patients may also be concerned about the radiation exposure. However, radiopharmaceuticals only release only small and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation is adjusted based on the severity of the disease. Smaller amounts are also used when the procedure is only performed for diagnostic purposes.
To keep risks and complications under control, all potential radiopharmaceutical agents undergo a strict evaluation and demonstration process. During this process, the radiopharmaceutical should be able to demonstrate its potential benefits and show that it is harmless to the patient receiving treatment. Each radiopharmaceutical drug may go through 5 to 8 years of evaluation and demonstration before it is approved for use.
Maffioli L, Florimonte L, Costa DC, Correia Castanheira J, Grana C, Luster M, Bodei L, Chinol M. “New radiopharmaceutical agents for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.” Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015 Dec;59(4):420-38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26222274
Pandit-Taskar N, Batraki M, Divgi CR. “Radiopharmaceutical therapy for palliation of bone pain from osseous metastases.” J Nucl Med. 2004 Aug;45(8):1358-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15299062