Definition & Overview
Radical resection of soft connective tissue tumours is a surgical method of removing tumour tissue along with the entire muscle or bone compartment surrounding it to greatly reduce the risk of recurrence.
Connective tissue is mainly composed of collagen that provides its elasticity and flexibility. This type of tissue supports and connects as well as separate distinct body parts and organs. Abnormal growth of soft connective tissues can occur virtually anywhere in the body and they can be either benign or malignant. There are several surgical techniques used in removing these tumours. These include intracapsular excision in which the tumour is removed from its pseudocapsule; marginal excision in which the tumour and its surrounding pseudocapsule is removed; and wide excision in which a margin of surrounding healthy tissue is removed along with the tumour and its capsule. However, if the tumour exhibits aggressive growth and is seen to have affected its surrounding parts, the surgeon may perform radical resection that removes the tumour with the entire muscle or bone compartment where it is located. In most cases, this procedure is done to reduce the chances of tumour recurrence.
Who Should Undergo and Expected Results
Despite being mostly asymptomatic, there are instances in which benign soft connective tissue tumours warrant radical resection. Patients diagnosed with lipoma or hemangioma may find that their tumour growth has greatly affected its surrounding body structures and has become a source of pain and discomfort. They may benefit from undergoing radical excision or resection of their tumours. Those who are suffering from leiomyoma, or tumour on the smooth surface of the muscle, may find their mobility impeded by the pain when the abnormal tissue growth has pressed on the muscle tissue. Patients suffering from chondroma or the benign tumour of the cartilage may also be offered this procedure to prevent further deterioration and fractures. The same option may also be offered for those with new bone growth attached to an existing bone.
Patients diagnosed with malignant soft tissue tumours or sarcomas are often advised to undergo radical resection. This is particularly true for those whose tumours are quite aggressive. An example of such condition is liposarcoma, a common tumour affecting the fatty layer in the lower extremities and the gluteal area. This type of tumour often invades its surrounding tissues, hence the need for a more aggressive and radical approach. Those suffering from fibrosarcoma can also benefit from undergoing this procedure. This condition usually occurs in the arms or legs and can metastasize to other parts of the body if left untreated.
Radical resection is also recommended for young adults with synovial cell sarcoma and epitheloid sarcomas, which typically develop in the extremities and can be quite painful. Efforts of saving a limb would often entail removing a large section of the affected part to help avoid total amputation.
Other types of soft connective tissue tumours that can be treated with radical resection include myxoma, mesenchymomas, and alveolar soft-parts sarcoma.
When done on benign tumours, this procedure is quite successful in removing these abnormal mass with relatively low risk of recurrence. Depending on the location and size of the benign mass, patients are typically asked to rest for a day or two. They may also need to adhere to a physical therapy program to promote healing and recover function of the affected parts.
For those with malignant tumour growth, resection could provide a means to stop the spread of cancer cells. However, the success and efficacy of such procedure are largely be dependent on the extent and stage of cancer being treated. Most patients are also asked to undergo radiation therapy and chemotherapy to increase their chances of being completely treated.
How is the Procedure Performed?
Radical resection of soft connective tissue tumours is typically done in a hospital setting with the patient placed under general anaesthesia. The skin of the surgical site is cleansed and sterilised before the surgeon makes an incision to access the tumour site. If the abnormal mass is located within a muscle compartment, the surgeon will have to dissect and remove the entire compartment. The same concept is applied if the tumour is found to be growing on the surface or within a bone. Care must be taken to ensure that there is little injury to nearby blood vessels and nerves as possible. There might also be a need to remove the nearby lymph nodes to help evaluate if the cancer cells have begun spreading to other parts of the body. Once the procedure has removed all indicated body parts, the surgeon then closes the incision with sutures or choose to leave it open. Bone resection may also involve the implantation of prosthesis to fill the gap or hole left behind by the procedure.
Possible Risks and Complications
Patients undergoing radical resection of soft tissue tumours face the risk of:
- Developing adverse reaction to anaesthesia and excessive bleeding during the procedure
- Infection; this can occur if the wound is not kept sterile and the dressing is not regularly replaced
- Losing an organ or body part function, if nearby blood vessels and nerves are damaged or injured. In some cases, this impairment is permanent and patients have to live with a disability after the surgery.
Blood clots and embolism
Gay F, Pierucci F, Zimmerman V, Lecocq-Teixeira S, Teixeira P, Baumann C, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of peripheral soft-tissue tumors: Feasibility study and preliminary results. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012 Jan. 93(1):37-46.
Costa MJ, Campman SC, Davis RL. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of sarcoma: retrospective review of diagnostic utility and specificity. Diagn Cytopathol. 1996 Jul. 15(1):23-32.
## What is Radical Resection of Soft Connective Tissue Tumors?
Radical resection of soft connective tissue tumors is a type of surgical procedure which involves the complete removal of a tumor from the body, including its infiltration into the surrounding tissue. It aims to remove the entire tumor without leaving any residual tumor cells in the surrounding areas. This procedure is performed in order to avoid local recurrence of the tumor after surgery.
## Overview of Radical Resection
Radical resection is a surgical technique used to remove soft connective tissue tumors which requires the entire tumor, including its infiltration into surrounding tissues, to be removed. The procedure is often performed when a tumor is found to have begun to spread throughout the body. It is usually performed under general anesthesia and involves the cutting of the tumor mass from the body, followed by removal of the tissue.
## Benefits of Radical Resection
The primary benefit of radical resection is that it helps to stop the tumor from further spreading and prevents it from returning after surgery. Thus, it can provide a long-term solution to tumor recurrence. Additionally, radical resection may also help reduce the risks of local recurrence. Since all tumors are cut from the body, radical resection also prevents any potential damage that could be caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
## Expected Results
Radical resection is generally effective in removing the tumor completely from the body. However, it is important to remember that this procedure is ultimately a last resort for treating tumors; therefore, it is important to understand that the success of the procedure solely depends on the tumor’s size and the degree of infiltration. A successful radical resection may result in complete remission of the tumor or may delay its growth and spread to other parts of the body.
## Factors Determining the Success of the Procedure
The success of resection for soft connective tissue tumors can depend on various factors, such as the size and stage of the tumor, the degree of infiltration, and the type of tissue found around the tumor. Other factors, such as the patient’s age, overall health condition, and the surgeon’s experience and skill, can also influence the outcome of the procedure.
### Tumor Size and Stage
The size and stage of the tumor are important factors in determining the success of the radical resection. If the tumor is small and localized, it is more likely to be successfully removed. On the other hand, if the tumor is too large or if the cancer has spread beyond its original borders, it may still be difficult to completely remove it through radical resection.
### Degree of Infiltration
The degree of infiltration is an important factor in determining the success of radical resection. The tumor must have infiltrated sufficiently far away from its original borders in order for radical resection to be successful.
### Tissue Found Around the Tumor
The type of tissue found around the tumor can also have an effect on the success rate of the procedure. If the tumor is surrounded by a dense tissue, such as muscle or bone, it may be more difficult to remove the entire tumor.
### Patient’s Age, Overall Health Condition, and Surgeon’s Experience and Skill
The age of the patient, their overall health condition, and the experience and skill of the surgeon can also have an effect on the success of the procedure. Age and general health may influence the tumor’s response to the surgery, while a skilled and experienced surgeon can better remove the entire tumor.
## Risks and Complications
Radical resection of soft connective tissue tumors carries potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, nerve damage, and abnormal scarring. In addition, there is a risk of recurrence of the tumor, even after successful removal. Therefore, it is important for patients to closely monitor their health and seek treatment immediately if any signs of recurrence are noticed.
## Postoperative Care
Since radical resection is a major surgery, it is important for the patient to receive proper postoperative care and monitoring. This includes following the doctor’s instructions for wound care, dressing changes, activity level, diet, and medications. If instructed, it is also important to undergo regular follow-up appointments with the doctor to monitor the status of the tumor.
Radical resection of soft connective tissue tumors is a type of surgical procedure performed to remove tumors completely from the body, including its infiltration into surrounding tissues. It is an effective way to remove and prevent the recurrence of tumors. However, numerous factors, such as tumor size, stage, degree of infiltration, patient’s age and health condition, and the skill and experience of the surgeon, can influence the success of the procedure. Furthermore, there are potential risks and complications associated with this procedure that should be discussed with a doctor prior to the surgery. Finally, it is important to follow the doctor’s postoperative instructions in order to reduce the risk of complications and the recurrence of the tumor.