Definition & Overview
A post-operation review is a routine examination or evaluation procedure performed after certain surgical procedures are carried out mainly to ensure a smooth recovery. It involves assessing the patient’s condition and ensuring that the goals of the procedures were achieved. It is performed as early as the day after surgery when signs of complications can already be detected.
Who Should Undergo and Expected Results
Post-operation review is carried out on those who have undergone certain inpatient surgical procedures with the goal to prevent potential complications or to identify them early on so they can be managed promptly.
During the review, the practitioner looks for several key signs or symptoms of any post-operative issues including wound-related complications. These include:
- Acute confusion
- Disordered wound healing
- Low urine output or urinary retention
- Abnormal discharge
A post-operation review also makes sure that the patient’s wound is properly cleansed and dressed, and that the patient receives adequate fluids to replace what the body lost from the operation. Inadequate fluid replacement usually causes low urine output in post-operative patients, and this symptom is usually detected during a post-operation review.
The goal of the review is to detect any potential problems early on and administer the necessary treatment to prevent further complications from developing. It aims to ensure the patient’s full recovery after the surgery. The post-operation review ends when the patient is discharged from the hospital.
How is the Procedure Performed?
During a post-operation review, a medical practitioner or nurse first reviews the patient’s medical information and other pertinent details such as number of days post-op, and the reason for the operation. The operation notes will also be checked to determine the patient’s recovery and management plan, and determine the stage where the patient is in the plan, and determine why the patient is still in the hospital, in the case of extended hospital stays.
This is followed by the review of check lab results, such as inflammatory markers, haemoglobin levels, electrolyte levels, and other results relevant to the surgery performed.
The patient will then be assessed, a procedure that occurs in different stages, namely:
- Questioning – The patient will be asked questions including:
- Are you experiencing any symptoms or other issues?
- Are you eating and drinking well? How much?
- How is your bowel movement? If there has been none since the operation, are you passing gas?
- How often do you need to go to the bathroom to urinate?
- How are your pain levels?
- Are you able to sit up, stand up, or move around?
- Nursing Chart – The medical practitioner will then put some notes on the nursing chart regarding his or her observations on the patient’s:
- Fluid balance and oral intake limitations
- Urine output
- NG/NJ output, if applicable
- Drains output
- Tubes in situ – This is required if the patient has had drains, tubes, or catheters placed during surgery
- Drains, such as the Wallis drain, the Redivac negative pressure drain, or the Pigtail drain, among others
- Wound catheters
- Urinary catheters
- Central line
- Physical or visual examination – The nurse will also check on the patient’s:
- Drain output quality, such as if the drain is serous or bloody
- Drain output quantity
Other relevant tests
Medication review – The nurse will then check the patient’s medication schedule and whether the patient requires a new dose. If so, the patient will be given the said dose.
In patients who underwent serious procedures, the post-operation review may be extended and more complex. The patient may gradually transition from various stages of oral and food intake, analgesic use, and IV fluid intake.
In terms of oral intake, patients may be required to transition slowly through the following stages:
- NG/NJ with free drainage
- Spigotted NG/NJ
- Small sips
- Clear liquids at controlled quantities (i.e. specific mLs per hour)
- Clear free fluids, such as water or tea without milk
- Free fluids, or anything that is liquid, including soup
- Light/soft diet
- Normal diet
In the early stages, patients may require supplementations, usually in the form of multivitamins, which can be administered through NG feeding or TPN if the patient is unable to eat.
Analgesic use should also be gradually reduced in intensity. Patients are usually initially given PCA, then tramadol, then paracetamol with oramorph. The goal is to bring analgesic usage down to just paracetamol and, eventually, to cessation.
As for IV fluids, the goal is to reduce them as soon as oral intake is possible.
Possible Risks and Complications
A post-operation review is crucial in ensuring that patients do not suffer from the common surgical complications that may occur, such as:
- Surgical site infections or SSIs
- Wound dehiscence
- Blood loss
- Drug reactions
Other less common but more serious complications include:
- Tissue damage and necrosis
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Pulmonary embolism
- Chest infections
- Post-op atelectasis
- Urinary tract infection
- Bowel obstruction, usually related to fibrinous adhesions
- Paralytic ileus
- Atelectasis, or a collapsed lung that becomes secondarily infected
Some delayed effects of surgery also include:
- Incisional hernia
- Keloid formation
- Abscess formation or wound sinus
Pietrangelo A. “Postoperative care.” Medically reviewed by Krucik G. 2013 June. http://www.healthline.com/health/postoperative-care#Overview1
“Post-Op General Surgical Patient Review.” SCEStop. http://www.oscestop.com/Surgical%20patient%20review.pdf
Dinakaran S, Desai SP, Raj PS. “Is the first post-operative day review necessary following uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery?” Eye (Lond). 2000 Jun; 14 (Pt 3A): 364-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11027001
What is Post-Operation Review: Overview, Benefits, and Expected Results
After undergoing a surgical procedure, it is important to monitor your progress and evaluate the effectiveness of the operation. This is where a post-operation review comes into play. A post-operation review, also known as a post-operative assessment or follow-up evaluation, is a comprehensive evaluation of a patient’s condition after surgery. It involves a thorough examination of the patient’s recovery process, potential complications, and expected outcomes. In this article, we will provide an overview of post-operation reviews, discuss their benefits, and explore the expected results.
Overview of Post-Operation Review
A post-operation review is typically conducted by the healthcare team responsible for the patient’s surgical care. It is designed to assess the patient’s progress, identify any potential complications, and provide necessary interventions to ensure optimal recovery. The review may take place in the hospital or as part of follow-up visits in an outpatient setting.
Key Elements of a Post-Operation Review
A post-operation review comprises several important components, including:
- Physical examination: The healthcare team will conduct a comprehensive physical examination to assess the patient’s vital signs, wound healing progress, and overall health status. This may involve measuring blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and evaluating incision sites for signs of infection or other complications.
- Medical history review: The medical team will review the patient’s medical records, including any pre-existing conditions or allergies, medications, and previous surgical procedures. This helps in evaluating the patient’s baseline health and identifying any potential risk factors for complications.
- Laboratory tests and imaging studies: Depending on the type of surgery and the patient’s specific circumstances, the healthcare team may order further laboratory tests or imaging studies to assess the patient’s organ functions, detect any abnormalities, or monitor healing progress.
- Discussion and education: The post-operation review is an opportunity for the healthcare team to discuss the surgery’s outcomes with the patient. This includes providing information on the success of the procedure, any expected limitations or side effects, and instructions for post-operative care. Patient education plays a crucial role in ensuring a smooth recovery and preventing complications.
- Follow-up appointments: The post-operation review may lead to scheduling future follow-up appointments to monitor the patient’s progress over time. These appointments allow the healthcare team to address any concerns or complications that may arise and make adjustments to the patient’s care plan as needed.
Benefits of Post-Operation Reviews
Post-operation reviews offer several benefits for both patients and healthcare providers:
- Early detection of complications: By closely monitoring the patient’s recovery, post-operation reviews help detect any potential complications at an early stage. This allows for prompt intervention, reducing the risk of further health issues and improving overall outcomes.
- Improved patient satisfaction: Regular post-operation reviews provide an opportunity for patients to discuss their concerns, ask questions, and receive necessary support and guidance. This patient-centered approach improves overall satisfaction and helps patients navigate the recovery process more confidently.
- Enhanced communication: Post-operation reviews facilitate effective communication between the healthcare team and the patient. They serve as a platform for information exchange, ensuring that the patient fully understands the surgical procedure, expected outcomes, and post-operative care guidelines.
- Quality assurance and research: Post-operation reviews contribute to ongoing quality improvement initiatives by collecting data on patient outcomes, complications, and post-operative care practices. The analysis of this data can help identify areas for improvement and contribute to evidence-based practices.
Expected Results of a Post-Operation Review
The expected results of a post-operation review vary depending on the type of surgery and the patient’s individual circumstances. However, there are some common outcomes that healthcare providers aim to achieve:
- Successful surgical outcomes: The primary goal of any surgical procedure is to achieve successful outcomes, such as pain relief, improved organ function, or the removal of diseased tissue. A post-operation review confirms whether the surgery has achieved its intended objectives.
- Wound healing progress: One of the key aspects evaluated during a post-operation review is the progress of wound healing. This includes assessing the closure of surgical incisions, signs of infection, and the overall appearance and condition of the wound.
- Resolution of symptoms: If the surgery was performed to address specific symptoms or conditions, a successful post-operation review would indicate a reduction or elimination of those symptoms. This could include pain relief, improved mobility, or the resolution of specific complaints.
- Identification and management of complications: In cases where complications arise, a post-operation review plays a crucial role in their early identification and appropriate management. Prompt intervention can prevent further health issues and ensure a more favorable outcome.
A post-operation review is a vital component of the overall surgical care process. By conducting a comprehensive evaluation after surgery, healthcare providers can monitor the patient’s progress, identify complications, and ensure the best possible outcomes. Post-operation reviews offer numerous benefits for both patients and healthcare providers, including early complication detection, enhanced patient satisfaction, improved communication, and opportunities for quality improvement. Patients should actively participate in post-operation reviews and follow the recommendations provided by their healthcare team to ensure a smooth recovery and optimal results.