What is Root Canal: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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What is ​Root⁢ Canal?

Root canal therapy is a ⁢dental procedure used to treat and repair badly decayed, cracked, or infected teeth. During the procedure, the pulp and⁢ nerve tissue of the affected tooth are removed⁣ and then⁢ the root canal system is⁢ sanitized and ​filled.

Root canals typically require one or two visits to a dentist or endodontist, and afterwards, the tooth concerned is usually sealed with a ​crown and can last a lifetime. Left untreated, root canals can be extremely painful and may lead to ​a dental ⁤abscess or tooth loss.

Symptoms of Root Canal Infection

Since the nerves of the‍ infected tooth have already died, patients typically⁢ experience no pain during an infection. However, there are still several notable signs and symptoms, such as:

  • Swollen gum tissue‌ near the infected tooth

  • A pimple-like bump on‌ the gums⁤ near the affected ‍tooth

  • Sensitivity to⁣ hot and cold temperatures

  • Bad breath or​ a foul taste‌ in the mouth

  • Discoloration of the affected tooth

Causes of Root Canal Infection

Root canal infections can happen‍ if the ​tooth’s​ enamel ​is ​weakened, leading to chips, or cracks that allow bacteria and food particles to reach the ‌inner‍ areas of the tooth, causing decay and infection. Other causes of infection include:

  • Untreated cavities

  • Injury to ‌the tooth

  • Chipped or cracked tooth

  • Frequent use of antibiotics

  • Infected gums

Diagnosing a Root Canal Infection

During a regular dental exam, a dentist may⁢ spot ‌the signs of a root canal infection. This will typically include a careful examination of the tooth, checking its colour and the underlying gum tissue. X-rays ⁤may also be used to ⁤get a closer look ⁢at the inside of the tooth.

If ‍the diagnosis is​ confirmed, the dentist or endodontist will typically prescribe a root canal treatment.

Treating a ​Root Canal Infection

Root canal treatment is needed to​ rid the tooth and surrounding areas of bacteria and infection, and to preserve as much of the​ damaged tooth as possible.

Treatment typically requires one or two ‌visits to a dentist ⁤or endodontist. During the first visit, the infected nerve is removed, ⁣and the root canal is cleaned and filled with ⁣a special filling material. The openings of​ the root canal⁣ system may also be sealed with a temporary filling.

At the second visit, the filling material is replaced, and the gum ⁤tissue is sutured back in place. An impression of the ⁢area is also taken, so a⁢ temporary crown can be placed before a permanent ‍crown is installed.

Other Considerations

The success of root canal⁣ treatment depends on ⁢many ‌factors, such as the extent of the infection and how long the infection has been present. With proper care, a root​ canal treated⁣ tooth can last ‌a⁢ lifetime.

Regular oral hygiene⁢ practices are also important in ⁢helping to prevent the development of further infections. This ‌includes brushing and flossing teeth twice​ daily to help ⁢reduce plaque and bacteria buildup, as well‍ as eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugary ⁢foods and drinks.

Definition and Overview

Root canal is a dental procedure that is performed to repair a tooth that has become decayed. To be more specific, the tooth is considered to be decayed when the nerve of the tooth is infected and the pulp is damaged. Dentists only prescribe a root canal in cases where the decay has already caused or is likely to cause permanent damage to the tooth.

The main goal of this procedure is to remove the damaged nerve and pulp. Once the inside of the tooth is clean, it is then sealed. This allows dentists to remove the damaged parts of the tooth while saving the tooth itself. It is considered as a conservative treatment compared to other options, such as total tooth extraction and replacement with a denture.

Root canal is a completely safe and proven dental procedure. Since nerves in the teeth serve only the vital function of causing the teeth to grow and emerge from the gums, they can be safely removed especially if they become vulnerable to infection. However, since they play a sensory role, specifically to help you identify between hot and cold, removing them may cause some heat and cold sensitivity; it will not, however, affect the main function of the tooth – which is to chew and break down food.

Despite being quite common and safe, root canal has earned the reputation of being quite painful. However, patients report that the procedure itself is not painful; it is actually the damaged nerve and pulp that cause some pain.

Why You Need A Root Canal

A root canal procedure can help protect you from potential risks and complications posed by decayed teeth. A decayed tooth may cause an abscess to form in the dental pulp, and if left untreated, it may allow bacteria to spread to otherwise healthy teeth or even from the mouth to other parts of the body. Other possible complications that can spring from an abscess or an infection include:

  • Swelling
  • Bone loss
  • Drainage problems, or when a hole is formed on the side of a tooth, through which some drainage can go into the gums or the cheek

There are, however, some cases wherein the decay is too severe that a root canal can no longer save the tooth. In such cases, you may opt for an extraction, or complete removal of the affected tooth. If you are not comfortable leaving the space empty, you can have a bridge or denture made.

What Happens During A Root Canal

During a root canal procedure, your dentist will first numb your gums using a substance that resembles jelly. Once numb, local anesthesia will be administered to number the teeth, gums, tongue, and skin around the mouth.

To isolate the damaged tooth, your dentist will use a sheet of rubber with a metal frame. This also prevents any debris from entering your throat. Once the site is ready, he will proceed by removing the pulp from the tooth’s center, and then goes on to remove the nerve. He then fills up the pulp cavity with medicines, a temporary filling, and a root canal filling to ensure that it will not be prone to infection, which can spread and affect adjacent teeth.

In some cases, the damaged tooth may require a crown. Since the tooth is now empty inside, it becomes fragile and may be prone to breaking or chipping. A crown or cap can help prevent these from happening. If your dentist prescribes a crown, he will take an impression of the tooth and will have it manufactured by a dental technician. If this is true for your case, your dentist will ask you to come back for another visit to install the crown.

Recovering from A Root Canal

If you have had a root canal procedure performed, you will feel some numbness around your mouth and gums for a few hours until the anesthesia wears off. Once that happens, you will feel some throbbing pain; this is why your dentist will prescribe some pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If the pain is bothering you or seems intense, you may ask for a stronger pain medication. Make sure, however, to follow all instructions on the label while taking pain medications.

You will likely need to take the pain medication for a couple of days, after which the pain is expected to subside. Once the pain wears off, you will have fully recovered from the procedure. You will only need to go back to your dentist for the placement of a crown (if necessary) or to have your crown repaired or redone in case it comes loose.

Root canals currently have a 95% success rate.

When Should You See An Endodontist?

There are some key symptoms that will tell you that a root canal therapy is necessary and should thus prompt you to see an endodontist. These include:

  • Severe toothache
  • Severe pain when pressure is applied to the tooth
  • Prolonged sensitivity or when the tooth still feels sensitive even after the hot or cold sensation is removed
  • Darkening of the tooth
  • Swelling in the gums
  • Tender gums
  • Persistent pimples on the gums
  • Recurring pimples on the gums

There are cases, however, where a decayed tooth shows no symptoms. Thus, it is important to visit your dentist regularly for a cleaning and a general checkup.


  • Yildirim C. (2012). “Current approach to root canal irrigants.” Gulhane Medical Journal.
  • Zehnder M. (2006). “Root canal irrigants.” Journal of Endodontics.
  • Baroudi K, Kazkaz M, Sakka S, Tarakji B. “Morphology of root canals in lower human premolars.” Nigerian Medical Journal.
  • Carrote P. (2004). “Endodontics: Part 2 Diagnosis and treatment planning.” British Dental Journal.



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