Qu'est-ce que le diabète sucré (type 2) ?

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**Q: What is⁣ Diabetes Mellitus⁢ (Type 2)?**

**A:** Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2) is a chronic‌ metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood⁣ glucose levels due to insulin resistance and/or insufficient insulin secretion. It is the most common form of diabetes, ​accounting ‌for approximately 90-95% of all cases.

**Key Points to Know:**

* **Insulin:** A hormone ‍produced by the pancreas that helps glucose enter ⁣cells for energy.

* **Insulin Resistance:** When cells become less responsive to insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels.

* **Insufficient Insulin Secretion:** When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, resulting in elevated⁢ blood glucose levels.

**Causes and Risk Factors:**

*​ **Genetic Predisposition**

* **Obesity and Physical Inactivity**

* **Age (over⁢ 45)**

* **Family⁤ History**

* **High Blood Pressure**

* **High Cholesterol**

* **Gestational Diabetes**


* Excessive thirst

* Frequent urination

* Unexplained‌ weight loss

* Increased hunger

* Fatigue

* Blurred vision

* Slow-healing sores

* Numbness or tingling in hands or feet


* Fasting Blood Glucose Test

* Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

* ⁣HbA1c Test (measures average blood sugar levels⁣ over the past 2-3‌ months)


*‍ **Lifestyle Modifications:** Weight loss, regular​ exercise, and a balanced‌ diet

* **Oral Medications:** Metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 ⁢agonists

* **Insulin Therapy:** Injections‍ of ⁢insulin to help lower blood glucose levels


Uncontrolled diabetes​ can ⁣lead to serious complications, including:

* Cardiovascular disease

* Stroke

* Kidney disease

* Retinopathy (eye damage)

* Neuropathy (nerve damage)

* Amputations


* Maintain a healthy weight

* Engage in regular physical activity

* Follow a ‍balanced diet

* Manage risk factors ⁤(e.g., blood pressure, cholesterol)

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