Qu'est-ce que le cancer de l'ovaire ?

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**What is Ovarian Cancer?**

**Q: What is​ ovarian cancer?**

**A:** Ovarian cancer is a type ⁢of malignancy that originates in the ovaries,‍ two small ⁤organs located on either side of the ‌uterus. ‍These organs produce hormones and release eggs​ for reproduction.

**Q: What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?**

**A:** Risk factors for ovarian cancer include:

* **Age:** The risk of ovarian cancer ⁣increases‌ with age.

* **Family history:** Having a close relative (mother, sister, daughter) with ovarian cancer⁢ increases one’s risk.

* **BRCA1/BRCA2 gene ​mutations:** These genetic mutations significantly increase the risk​ of ovarian⁢ and⁤ other cancers.

* **Inherited ⁣ovarian cancer syndromes:** Certain syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome​ and⁤ familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), can‍ increase the risk⁣ of ovarian ⁤cancer.

* **Lifestyle factors:** Certain lifestyle choices, such as smoking, obesity, ​and⁢ a sedentary ⁣lifestyle, may slightly increase the risk of ​ovarian ​cancer.

**Q: What are the symptoms of ​ovarian cancer?**

**A:** ⁢Early-stage ⁣ovarian cancer often ‌has ⁢no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer ⁣progresses, symptoms may include:

* Abdominal swelling or bloating

* Frequent‍ urinary⁢ urgency or difficulty

* Pelvic ⁢pain or discomfort

* Feeling full ​quickly or⁢ losing weight without trying

* ⁣Back ​pain

* Fatigue or other ⁣nonspecific symptoms

**Q: How is‌ ovarian cancer diagnosed?**

**A:**​ Diagnosis of ​ovarian cancer may involve:

* **Pelvic exam:** A manual examination of the pelvic organs.

* ⁣**Transvaginal‌ ultrasound (TVUS):** A probe is inserted into the vagina⁢ to create images of the ovaries and surrounding structures.

* **Blood tests:** ​To check for elevated CA-125 levels,‌ a protein marker associated ⁢with ovarian cancer.

*‌ **Biopsy:** Removing​ a‍ sample of tissue ⁤from the‌ ovary for examination under a microscope.

**Q: How is ovarian cancer treated?**

**A:** Treatment for ovarian cancer⁢ typically combines‌ one or more of the⁣ following:

* **Surgery:** Removal of the affected ovary(ies) and fallopian⁣ tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy)

* **Chemotherapy:** Systemic therapy using drugs to kill cancer cells

* **Radiation therapy:** Using X-rays or other high-energy beams to target‍ and destroy cancer cells

* **Targeted therapy:** Medications ⁤that specifically target molecular markers‍ on ⁢cancer cells

**Q: ⁤What is‌ the ⁤prognosis for ovarian​ cancer?**

**A:**​ The prognosis for ovarian cancer depends on ​factors such ⁣as the stage at diagnosis, the type of⁤ tumor, and the​ patient’s⁤ individual characteristics. With early detection and treatment, the 5-year survival rate is often high. However, ovarian cancer‌ can be difficult to diagnose early, so ‌the overall survival rate ‍is lower than that of many other types of cancer.

**Q: How can I reduce my risk‍ of ovarian cancer?**

**A:** While not all risk factors ⁣for ovarian cancer are modifiable, certain⁢ measures may potentially reduce risk:

*​ **Genetic testing:** Consider genetic testing ⁤for ⁢BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations to determine if you have an increased risk.

* **Hormonal contraception:** Long-term use of hormonal ‌contraceptives, such as ‍birth control pills, has been ⁣shown to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer.

* **Breastfeeding:** Some research suggests that breastfeeding may slightly reduce the risk⁤ of ovarian cancer.

* **Ovarian ⁣cancer screening:**‍ Screening is not routinely recommended, ‍but it ⁣may ‍be an option for women with a high risk.

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