Qu'est-ce que le suivi d'une greffe de moelle osseuse : aperçu, avantages et résultats attendus

Définition et aperçu

UN bone marrow transplant follow-up is a post-transplant appointment between a patient and his healthcare team, which include an oncologist and hematologist (blood specialist).

A bone marrow transplant is a procedure where the marrow, or the fatty tissue found within the bone that is responsible for creating red and white blood cells, is replaced with a new one. Red blood cells are responsible for delivering oxygen to different parts of the body while the white blood cells have crucial components that help fight and provide immunity against pathogens and infections.

Many diseases can cause an abnormal level of blood cells. These include blood cancers like leucémie and blood disorders like severe anémie. Although medications and other forms of treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation can be used, a transplant is recommended for severe cases.

A bone marrow transplant may be autologous or allogeneic. The former means that the stem cells, which are used to generate the bone marrow, come from the patient himself. Allogeneic, on the other hand, means the stem cells come from another person. The best and most convenient matches are often direct family members such as parents and siblings. However, they can also be friends, distant relatives, and even strangers who can be found in donor registries.

Qui devrait subir et résultats attendus

A bone marrow transplant follow-up is a requirement for all those who have gone through the procedure as there is a chance that complications may develop. Some of the most common ones are nausea and vomiting, douleur de poitrine, high fever, headache, chills, and shortness of breath. While some of the complications are mild, a number may be serious enough to decrease the patient’s level of activity and prevent essential functions like eating or swallowing.

In other cases, patients may develop allergies, which may be life threatening if it includes anaphylactic shock. Doctors also often watch out for a condition called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition wherein the transplanted stem cells destroy the tissues and organs of the body.

Also, a bone marrow transplant does not always guarantee a complete cure. It may only partially cure the disease, or it is possible that the disease itself can return even after the doctor has confirmed a complete cure. A follow-up is instrumental in monitoring recurrence, detecting it while in its earliest stages and treating it accordingly before it gets worse.

Children who have gone through a bone marrow transplant undergo follow-up not only to monitor complications and recurrence but also to track their growth and development.

Comment fonctionne la procédure ?

The majority of patients who have gone through a bone marrow transplant require a long-term follow-up care. This is especially true for children who will still undergo many physiological changes while growing up.

The frequency of follow-ups depends on many factors including complications that have occurred following the procedure, the overall health of the patient including the state of his immune system, age and the presence of other physical conditions. Normally, patients who receive an autologous transplant will be checked as part of the ongoing follow-up a month after. Those who have allogeneic transplant may visit their transplant team after three months. After that, follow-up can be scheduled every six months then every year for at least five years.

Many hospitals these days have a comprehensive transplant program, which includes a dedicated long-term follow-up. A patient is provided with a nurse or a coordinator who sees to it that the patient commits and attends all his appointments. Depending on the progress of the patient, he may be released from the program and then continued to be monitored by the referring physician.

The follow-up is best conducted face-to-face. However, in times when that is not possible, such as when the patient is traveling, has moved to another state, or is ill, it can be performed through telephone or video conferencing and e-mail.

Risques et complications possibles

A follow-up requires regular communication and a strong commitment from the patient. However, many factors may prevent the patient from being dedicated to it. These include the development of complications, age and general health condition. Some of the patients may feel that they are well enough that they do not need to visit their doctor regularly or often while others may be frustrated with their own health. A number of patients may also develop emotional health problems such as dépression and anxiety, which can worsen or be triggered by follow-up visits.

Les références:

  • Bashir Q, Champlin R. Greffe de cellules souches hématopoïétiques. Dans : Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al., eds. L'oncologie clinique d'Abeloff. 5e éd. Philadelphie, Pennsylvanie : Elsevier Churchill Livingstone ; 2013 : chap. 30.

  • Heslop HE. Overview of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 104.


**What is Bone ​Marrow Transplant (BMT) Follow-Up?**

Bone marrow transplant follow-up refers to the ongoing medical care provided⁤ to patients who⁣ have undergone a bone marrow transplant (BMT). It plays a crucial role in monitoring ⁢the patient’s recovery, assessing ‍the transplant’s success, and managing any potential complications.

**Overview of BMT⁢ Follow-Up**

BMT‌ follow-up‍ typically begins immediately after the transplant ⁢and continues for several months or years. ‍The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments depend on the patient’s overall health,‍ the ‌type of‍ transplant, and any complications that may arise.

During​ follow-up visits, the patient’s medical team will conduct⁢ various ⁤tests and examinations to track their recovery. These‌ may ⁤include:

*⁣ Blood⁢ tests: To assess blood counts,‍ blood chemistry, and immune function.

*⁢ Bone marrow biopsies: To examine the ‍production of‍ new blood cells.

* Physical examinations: To look for signs of infection, scarring, or other⁤ complications.

* Imaging tests (e.g., CT scans, MRIs): To‌ identify any transplant-related complications or anatomical changes.

**Benefits of BMT Follow-Up**

Regular BMT follow-up offers several benefits, including:

* Early ⁣detection and treatment of complications:⁣ Follow-up appointments allow the‌ medical team ⁢to identify and address any potential complications of the transplant,⁢ such as‍ graft-versus-host disease or infections.

* Monitoring ⁣transplant success: ⁢Follow-up tests help the team track the effectiveness of the transplant and assess the patient’s immune system recovery.

* Management of medications: Patients⁣ who undergo BMT often require medications to suppress the immune system (immunosuppressants) and other treatments. Follow-up appointments ensure that patients receive and take these ⁣medications as prescribed.

* ⁢Psychological support: The BMT follow-up process provides ongoing psychological support to patients and their families,‌ helping them navigate the emotional and practical challenges​ of post-transplant life.

**Expected Results of BMT Follow-Up**

The expected outcomes‌ of BMT follow-up vary depending ​on the patient’s underlying ⁢condition, the type of​ transplant, and⁢ individual factors. However, successful follow-up typically results in:

* Reduced risk of complications: Regular monitoring and early intervention can help prevent or mitigate potential complications of the⁣ transplant.

* Improved quality of ​life: Follow-up⁤ care helps patients manage any long-term effects of the transplant and promotes overall well-being.

* ​Potential for long-term survival: Effective follow-up⁤ can improve the chances of ⁣long-term survival⁣ and disease remission.


Bone marrow transplant follow-up is a crucial aspect of post-transplant care, offering numerous ⁢benefits for patients.‌ By providing ongoing monitoring, early detection of complications, and personalized management, follow-up helps ensure the success‌ of the transplant and promotes the patient’s overall recovery and well-being.

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