Qu'est-ce que la glomérulonéphrite post-streptococcique?

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**What is Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis?**


Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an immune-mediated kidney disease that develops‌ after a recent streptococcal infection, typically after a streptococcal⁤ skin infection (impetigo) or a⁤ streptococcal throat⁣ infection ​(pharyngitis).

**How PSGN Develops:**

After a streptococcal infection, some individuals‌ develop abnormal antibodies called anti-streptolysin O (ASO) antibodies. These antibodies mistakenly attack the glomeruli, the ​tiny filters in the ⁣kidneys, causing inflammation and damage.


* Swelling in the face, hands, and feet

* Blood⁤ in the urine (hematuria)

* Dark urine (increased urine concentration‍ due to less water filtration)

*‌ Decreased urine output

* High blood pressure

* ⁣Fatigue

* Nausea and vomiting

* Headache


The exact cause of PSGN​ is unknown, but it‍ is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response to ‍streptococcal antigens (substances present on‍ the streptococcus⁢ bacteria).

**Risk Factors:**

* Infection with a ‍specific strain of⁢ Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria

* Recent ⁣streptococcal skin or throat infection

* Certain immune system ⁤conditions or genetic factors


* Physical examination and medical ⁤history

*⁢ Blood tests to detect⁢ elevated ​ASO antibody levels

* Urine⁤ tests to assess kidney function and detect blood or protein ​in⁤ the ⁢urine

* Kidney biopsy may be recommended in severe or ⁤persistent cases


Treatment‍ focuses on managing the inflammation and preventing further kidney damage:

* **Antibiotics:** To treat the underlying‍ streptococcal infection

* **Corticosteroids:** To reduce inflammation

* **Other Medications:** May include antihypertensives for hypertension artérielle ‍and diuretics to reduce fluid retention

* **Dialysis:** May be necessary in severe cases or if kidney failure develops


Prevention of ‌streptococcal infections is key in reducing the risk⁣ of PSGN. This includes:

* Proper ⁣hand hygiene

*​ Covering‌ open wounds

* Avoiding contact with ⁤people who have streptococcal ‌infections

* Getting vaccinated‌ against streptococcal pneumonia


Untreated or severe‌ PSGN can lead to complications such as:

* ​Permanent⁣ kidney ‍damage

* Kidney failure

* High blood⁢ pressure

* Fluid retention

* Electrolyte imbalances


With prompt diagnosis and treatment, most people with PSGN recover ‌fully. However, a small percentage may develop chronic ‌kidney disease or​ other complications. Regular monitoring and proper ‌streptococcal infection ⁢prevention are important to‍ minimize the risk of recurrence.

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